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India (/ˈɪndiə/), officially the Republic of India (Bharat Ganrajya), is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the south-west, and the Bay of Bengal on the south-east, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west; China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the north-east; and Burma and Bangladesh to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives; in addition, India’s Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia.

Home to the ancient Indus Valley Civilisation and a region of historic trade routes and vast empires, the Indian subcontinent was identified with its commercial and cultural wealth for much of its long history. Four world religions—Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism—originated here, whereas Zoroastrianism, Christianity, and Islam arrived in the 1st millennium CE and also helped shape the region’s diverse culture. Gradually annexed by and brought under the administration of the British East India Companyfrom the early 18th century and administered directly by the United Kingdom from the mid-19th century, India became an independent nation in 1947 after a struggle for independence that was marked by non-violent resistance led by Mahatma Gandhi.

The Indian economy is the world’s tenth-largest by nominal GDP and third-largest by purchasing power parity (PPP). Followingmarket-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies; it is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, illiteracy, corruption, malnutrition, inadequate public healthcare, and terrorism. A nuclear weapons state and a regional power, it has the third-largest standing army in the world and ranks seventh in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal constitutional republic governed under a parliamentary systemconsisting of 28 states and 7 union territories. India is a pluralistic, multilingual, and multi-ethnic society. It is also home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats.

Capital New Delhi
28°36.8′N 77°12.5′E
Largest city Delhi (in area)
Mumbai (in population)
Official languages
Recognised regional languages
National language/s none[3]
Demonym Indian
Government Federal parliamentary
constitutional republic[1]
 – President Pranab Mukherjee
 – Vice President Mohammad Hamid Ansari
 – Prime Minister Manmohan Singh (INC)
 – Speaker of the House Meira Kumar (INC)
 – Chief Justice Altamas Kabir[4]
Legislature Parliament of India
 – Upper house Rajya Sabha
 – Lower house Lok Sabha
Independence from the United Kingdom
 – Dominion 15 August 1947
 – Republic 26 January 1950
 – Total 3,287,263 km2[b] (7th)
1,269,219 sq mi
 – Water (%) 9.6
 – 2011 census 1,210,193,422[5] (2nd)
 – Density 372.6/km2 (31st)
965.1/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2012 estimate
 – Total $4.7 trillion[6] (3rd)
 – Per capita $3,851[6] (129th)
GDP (nominal) 2012 estimate
 – Total $1.95 trillion[6] (10th)
 – Per capita $1,592[6] (140th)
Gini (2004) 36.8[7]
medium · 79th
HDI (2012) Increase 0.554[8][9]
medium · 136th (medium)
Currency Indian rupee (INR) (INR)
Time zone IST (UTC+05:30)
 – Summer (DST) not observed (UTC+05:30)
Date format dd-mm-yyyy (CE)
Drives on the left
Calling code +91
ISO 3166 code IN
Internet TLD .in



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